Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most significant viral cause of acute haemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in puppies over the age of 3-4 months. There is enough indication of circulation of new CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India. As the CPV strains were found to be under immense selection pressure and realizing the constant mutations happening in the field strains. Only one CPV-2b based vaccine is available. The available vaccine is not effective due to antigenic drift and continuous mutations of virus and vaccine are made on isolates from non-Indian isolates. Therefore there is a need for alternative ways to treat this viral disease where there are several antigenic drifts reported with Indian isolates.
Egg yolk immunoglobulin produced from chicken also known as IgY is a passive, inexpensive and easy to produce immunoglobulin which is produced in a natural way from immunized birds. It has attracted much attention to be efficient in therapy and prevention, reported in oral administration of polyclonal IgY immunoglobulins. IgY is experiencing high interest mainly due to the high specificity, strong avidity and low production costs of as compared to mammalian antibodies. Biologically active IgY immunoglobulins are transmitted vertically from blood into the egg yolk and can be extracted easily from the egg yolk. Antibody therapy neutralizes CPV2, a causative agent, present in the gut of an infected pups and dogs. The binding of IgY to virus causes trapping of virus, which may impede the adhesion of virus to intestinal epithelial cells. Neutralization of antibody therapies has not been reported for resistance so far. A unique approach to neutralize virus and curb viral growth via neutralization by IgY antibodies is a novel approach to improve the health of infected pups and dogs along with a supportive therapy.