The hepatopancreatic microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an emerging pathogen that affects cultured shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The microsporidium EHP, is probably the most important disease in shrimp farming at the moment. The main clinical signs of EHP are growth retardation, which leads to increased size variability. In advanced stages of the disease, EHP-infected shrimp typically display soft shells, and chronic mortalities. In some cases, the coinfection of EHP and Vibrio spp. has been associated with the development of white faeces syndrome (WFS). Histopathological lesions induced by EHP in the hepatopancreas display irregular/regular basophilic inclusion bodies within the cytoplasm, with or without the presence of spores.
Innovative approach to control using plant essential oils and nanotechnology to control EHP and related symptoms have provide new look of disease control. Associated symptoms of the disease can also be improved with different fatty acids, phospholipids, chelated minerals and antioxidants.